Black hat SEO techniques are all the illegal techniques which has been used during search engine optimization to get higher search engine ranking. If you have used these illegal techniques, you run the risk of being penalized by search engines.
There are many onpage and offpage factors that can cause search engines to ban your website. Many websites are doing some of these things to set a good search ranking. Actually they don't help to get a good ranking and simply it's a waste of time. So never try these things because sooner or later Google will catch up to these and will remove your website from their index.
Link Farms:-When many websites link to each other to mutually up their incoming links. If the count of these links are very high and out of context then there is a possibility of being banned by search engines.
Cloaking:- Cloaking is an another black hat seo technique to fool search engine. In this technique user creates two different pages. One page for search engine spiders and another page for users. It is an illegal technique in search engine optimization.
Hidden text: - hidden text is the text that users can't see during visiting your webpage. Some people and web masters use this to add extra keyword to increase keyword density. Users can't see the hidden text but the search engine can still see the hidden text.
Alt image tag spamming: - "alt image tag" is another method that people try to stuff keywords in to their website allowing search engine to see their keywords but not allowing visitors to notice any difference in their website.
The following website wanted to rank well for "football tips". They have inserted image of football. They have added an alt image tag to graphic. When any one visits their website hovers their mouse over the football image a popup appears.
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Now see how many times they have used the word "football tips" and "football tip?" there is no any use of doing this other than to increase the count of the keyword as many times as possible in their webpage.
The real use of alt image tag is if people visits your website and graphic is not loading or disable by web browser text will appear instead of image.
So, Always remember using of alt image tags is good but if you over do this then believe me it hurts you more. A good alt image tag in this case would simple be: good football tips graphic.
Meta keyword stuffing: - Meta tags are very important to get a higher search engine ranking. But when people through in thousands of the same keyword in to their Meta keyword it is called "meta keyword stuffing".
Example: - Following website is trying to rank well keyword "sports" [META NAME= "KEYWORDS" CONTANT= "SPORTS, SPORT, SPORTs, SPort, Sports, sPORT, SpoRT, SPOrtS"]
This is totally ridiculous. Google dose not use Meta keyword when ranking websites. But some search engines gives importance for keyword stuffing Google can penalize your website but it will not help you. So don't do anything like this.
TITLE TAG STUFFING: - Title tag plays a very important role in getting better search results. Always use your main keyword in title tag. But never do the title tag stuffing. Your title tag length must not be more than 80 characters.
Here is the example of title tag stuffing: -
Only include your main keyword once in the title tag. If you over do it as shown above you may get banned.
These are few things which will surely get your website banned and will not help you to get a good ranking. It's only a waste of time and efforts.